child language disorders in a pluralistic society
briefing:clinician and interpreter review client's background information and outline the purpose of the session.
no child is untestable and that,using a variety of clinical tools,it is possible to get at least some useful diagnostic information about every child,regardless of how hard he or she may be to assess.
book reading and storytelling
Davison's typology of bilingualism
few functional skills
where is the doggy?
is considered defective by the individual's cultural community
the most common contrived responses for a comprehension assessment is picture pointing.
3.encouraging parents to use exaggerated intonation and stress during reading to highlight important elements in the text
balanced:an individual has equivalent competence in two language.
those who are noncompliant
the first problem in assessing a culturally or linguistically different child is determining whether a real disorder exists or whether there is merely the perception(usually on the part of teachers or others professionals)of a disorder that is based on a language difference.
learn to follow the child's lead by imitating actions,sounds,and words the child produces and providing words to match the child's actions and activities.
New Haven, Connecticut
remind the parents that the important task is to help the child do the best he or she can now and for the next few months or years
assess dysmorphology and family history;conduct genetic testing if indicated
review pictures for familiarity.sbustitute other pictures or objects for those likely to be unfamiliar.
developmental level 4 years and oldre
when taught names of pictures ,children with ASD did not recognize the real objects the pictures represented as having the same label as the picture,suggests that children with ASD have difficulty understanding that pictures are representations of objects,it is important to teach receptive language in relation to real,functional objects rather than pictures with this population.圖片和實物脫節，看圖片能說出物品名稱，看到實物後不一定能說出物品名稱（圖片儘量使用相片，不要使用卡通、素描之類的）
is this child like your other children or different in some way?
stays on topic
assessing culturally and linguistically different children
some impact on performance but does not preclude participation in age-appropriate activities in school and community
when children perform poorly on processing-dependent measures,there is a high likelihood that they will have some type of language-learning difficulty.
formative versus summative assessment
provide opportunities to request specific books and reading activities:include pictures of favorite books and serval reading related options("pick a book""read to me""read it again'" turn the page")on communication boards
simultaneous:a child is exposed to two languages from birth.
those who are hyperavtive and impulsive
the nonlinguistic stimuli are the same as in the imitation phase,the linguistic stimulus is a question,rather than a request for imitation(e.g.,what am i doing?).response to correct productions is the same as in the imitation phase.if the child fails to respond or responds incorrectly,an imitative prompt is given,followed by a repetition of the linguistic stimulus(e.g.,say pet the bunny,what am i doing?)this may be repeat.
Senior Research FellowDepartment of Psychology Royal Holloway University of London London,England
phonological work should focus primarily on expanding the repertoire of sounds and syllable shapes,rather than on correcting errors relative to adult target words.any conventional word approximations that children with developmental delays are producing ought to be rewarded,not corrected.at the emerging language stage of development,the goal is to get the child talking and to increase the range of phonological structures available to support this talk.
purpose:to get a more accurate assessment of the child's knowledge of items on the test,modified responses cannot be included in standard scoring,but supply deeper information about the child's knowledge.
4.encouraging parents to develop play activities around the themes from storybooks read; e.g.,after reading one fish,two fish,children can be encouraged to find red and blue things in their house
we need know whether the home language or English is the child's stronger communication modality in order to decide which will yield the most valid information.
2.teaching parents routines interactive reading strategies,such as pointing out connections between pictures and text,stopping to let children"fill in "elements after they have heard the story a few times,etc.
observe code switching(alternations between languages within an utterance)and language interference (the influence of one language on another,such as mispronounciations due to accent),and interpret how these affect performance and results.
date of evaluation
while the child is playing with the material used as nonlinguistic sitmuli in the imitation and conversation phases,the adult asks for the conversational response in an appropriate context(e.g.,if the child pets the toy bunny,the adult can ask,what are you doing,or the adult can pick up one of the toys and ask,what shall i do?).if the child gives a correct response contanining a two-word expression of the target sematic relation,a cofirming response is given(e.g., yeah,you pet the bunny!).if the child does not respond or responds incorrectly,the adult does not confirm the response or comply with the request,instead,a 3s pause is followed by a request for an imitation of the target utterance.
review past testing of CLD children to look for items or subtests that were problematic for many of these children.
integrating and interpreting assessment data
assess response to name
language sampling:child's connected speech in less structured,social/interactive tasks,including:mean length of utterence,narrative structure,pragmatic language skills
need to be cautious when making prognostic statements,taking all relevant factors into account,
impairment in communication is one of the core symptoms of ASD
purpose:child responses to the prompts are used to make predictions about response to intervention. number of prompts needed to elicit targets can predict gains after intervention.
sample type personal narratives,story telling,or story generation form picture book
example:when child is incorrect on expressive vocabulary test,ask questions such as,"how did you know that?"or "what would happen if you wanted one of these from the store?what would you say?"
starts a conversation
6.model procedures for the parent;observe parent using procedures
language use history:use of primary and secondary language at home with parents,siblings,extended family,and friends;language preferences in difference settings or for different activities
6.measure of central tendency and variablity
assess receptive vocabulary,understand of simple word combinations
suggestions for modifying standardized tests for assessment of CLD children
3.don't ask silly questions:don't ask questions to which that the child knows you already know the answer.
7.provide feeedback to parent,using videotape or group-training procedures
language disorder or language difference?
material pretend play with miniatures,unusual objects to describe,photographs of events/places
on picture-pointing tests,have children name the items as well as point to those named by the teacher, to examin the appropriateness of the children's label.
naturalistic responses include behavioral compliance and answers to questions.
5.exposing children to decontextualized talk relating the stories they have heard to their own day-to-day activities;e.g.,talking about times the child has seen fish
calls attention to itself or interferes with communication within that community
the hard-to-assess child
rule out hearing and vision loss
have children explain why they answered as they did,if answer is incorrect according to test norms.
communication and symbolic behavior scales infant-toddler checklist
model literacy activities:encourage parents and teachers to demonstrate their use of books to get information and entertainment,writing lists,labeling objects in the environment with signs,and so on
determine appropriateness of vocabulary for community;poll team for most appropriate vocabulary to use for local children.
rating a child's use of communication in everyday life on six basic parameters
this assessment involves examination of the following five major componets:
results in difficulties in adjustment for the client
in developing an effecitve AAC system,we will need to go beyond teaching it to the client,we will also need to work directly with parents,teacher,and peers to encourage and support them in making the system work for the client,using more normative platforms,such as smart phones and notepad computers,can help in this endeavor.
compare children's answers not only to the "right"answer according to test norms,but also to dialect, home language,or second-language learning features.rescore articulation and expressive language results, giving credit for these kinds of variations.
if，for example,a child demonstrates driving cars during the play assessment,drive would be an accessible word,although simplified pronounciationshould be expected.教柔柔說踩車，